Back That Elf Up


I'm not quite sure what I'm going to do with this but bear with me.

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so-treu:

The Banjo’s African American Heritage

Since Caribbean Blacks created the banjo in the 17th century and carried it to North America in the 18th century, the banjo has been part of African American heritage. An African New World combination of European and African elements, early banjos resembled plucked full spike folk lutes like the akonting of Gambia, Senegal, and Guinea-Bissau and the bunchundo of Gambia and Guinea-Bissau. Like these instruments, early banjos had gourd or calabash bodies covered by a skin membrane and wood bridges held by string tension. Most early banjos had four gut or fiber strings, often three long and one short drone string, though some had two long strings and one short string. Banjos’ flat fingerboards and tuning pegs, not found on indigenous West African instruments, came from European instruments.

First reported in Jamaica in 1687 and in Martinique in 1698, until the 19th century the banjo was identified exclusively with Black people. Banjos rang in Barbados, Antigua, St. Kitts, St. Croix, Suriname, and Haiti in the 1700s and early 1800s. First reported in North America in Manhattan in 1736, by the early 1800s, Black folk played banjos from New England to Louisiana. The Old Plantation, painted before 1790 by South Carolina planter John Rose, depicts a Black banjoist and a Black drummer playing for Black dancers. By the 1830s, white entertainers wearing black face makeup and singing what they called Black songs adopted the banjo. Known as “minstrels” by the 1840s, they became widely popular, touring the United States, Britain, Ireland, Australia, and New Zealand. Though they reflected American racism, their music and dance launched worldwide interest in Black music and the banjo.

By the 1840s five-string banjos with four long strings and one short string one short string, the highest in pitch, but set next to the lowest pitched long string, had developed. Wood frame rims to stretch the skin replaced the gourds. A commercial banjo industry appeared linking entertainers, sellers of banjo music, and manufacturers. By the late 19th century metal covered or replaced the wooden frame rims entirely, frets were added, metal strings replaced gut, and a variety of mechanisms were added to banjos to produce a loud, clear, treble sound. Black banjoists adopted these innovations to make even more powerful music. Black dances powered by banjo persisted into the twentieth century. Though Black banjoists, white show business banjoists, parlor banjoists, and white Southern folk banjoists exchanged tunes and techniques, the drive of Black banjoists to play for African American dancers preserved Black banjo’s distinctive West African musical approaches.

After the Civil War, Black minstrel companies offered real African American music, not pale imitations, eclipsing the white minstrels’ popularity by 1900. African American banjo syncopation helped inspire ragtime, a combination of folk, popular, and art music born in the Black Midwest that became internationally popular in the 1890s and 1900s. Scott Joplin, the great ragtime composer, dedicated compositions to Black banjoists. More ragtime banjo records than piano records appeared in the early 1900s. As banjo playing became a vital part of turn of the century popular music, Black Banjoists like Horace Weston, the Bohee Brothers, Hosea Eason, and James Bland became international stars. Black banjo playing probably reached its height before World War I. Black banjoists swung old time dances and starred in shows from London to Broadway.

Middle class African Americans formed banjo, mandolin, and guitar clubs. The most prominent, Washington’s Aeolians, played for thousands while Black newspapers across the country covered their concerts as society news. Black bandleader James Reese Europe, New York’s foremost bandleader who bridged ragtime and jazz, led a band that featured six banjoists among only ten musicians and formed concert orchestras with scores of banjos. New banjos without drone strings and played with flat picks arose in the 20th Century: tenor banjos, tuned like violas, six-string guitar banjos, mandolin banjos, and plectrum banjos, modeled on the five string banjo without the fifth string. The jazz banjoists that played them included musicians like Elmer Snowden, Zach White, Johnny St. Cyr, Noble Sissle, and Freddie Green, who became major jazz guitarists, band leaders, and composers.

Across the 20th century, the banjo declined. Musicians, white and Black, abandoned the banjo as the old time dances died out. Though Memphis five-string banjoist Gus Cannon made thirty-three blues and rag records from 1927 to 1930, pianos and steel stringed guitars dominated the blues. In jazz the new large arch top and, later, electric guitars replaced banjos. Even in country music, the banjo became chiefly a prop for hayseed comedians until Earl Scruggs changed everything in 1945. Yet, African American traditional banjoists survived even if their music was no longer popular. Folklorists and banjo enthusiasts found and documented surviving Black banjoists like Dink Roberts, Nate and Odell Thompson, Rufus Kasey, Elizabeth Cotton, Lewis Hairston, and Etta Baker. Scholars like Dena Epstein and Cece Conway, reaffirmed the African ancestry, Caribbean origins, and Black American history of the banjo. Starting with 1960s folk blues performers Taj Mahal and Otis Taylor, a new generation revived Black banjo playing.

The 2005 Black Banjo Gathering in Boone, North Carolina brought this revival to a new stage. Featuring scholars and players of West African music; Black banjoists like Jazz banjoist Don Vappie; the Ebony Hillbillies, New York’s Black string band; the young Black musicians who later formed the Grammy-winning Carolina Chocolate Drops; banjo historians like Robert Winans and Cece Conway; and leading banjoists like Mike Seeger and Bela Fleck, the gathering celebrated both African American banjo heritage and the Black banjo revival. Since the gathering, scholars from Africa, Europe, and North America have vastly expanded our knowledge of the banjo’s African roots, Caribbean origin, and African American history. Black banjoists have become a growing feature of both folk music and jazz. Young musicians, Black and white, have even taken up the akonting and other West African instruments that are the banjo’s ancestors. The banjo’s African American heritage is celebrated worldwide.

The article was written by Tony Thomas, the leading African American scholar of the banjo. Thomas organized the 2005 Black Banjo Gathering, served as contributing historian to the PBS documentary Give Me the Banjo, plays banjo and guitar with the Ebony Hillbillies, and has presented on Black banjo history and taught banjo at old time music, blues, and banjo festivals, universities, and public schools in the United States and Europe. His work has been published in periodicals like The Black Scholar and the Old Time Herald and is forthcoming at Illinois and Duke University presses. He can be reached for presentations, performance, and classes at BlackBanjoEducation@outlook.com.

photo 1

photo 2, photo 3

photo 4

Source: so-treu

blimeygames:

mistercococat:

coco! what do your cat eyes see?

ALL.

blimeygames:

mistercococat:

coco! what do your cat eyes see?

ALL.

Source: mistercococat

fuckyeahmercury:

Queen, 1974.

fuckyeahmercury:

Queen, 1974.

crusherccme:

found this gem in the 1996 Cornell Women’s Handbook. it’s what to say when a guy tries to get out of using a condom

crusherccme:

found this gem in the 1996 Cornell Women’s Handbook. it’s what to say when a guy tries to get out of using a condom

Source: crusherccme

californiastatelibrary:

American Indian Girl (date unknown)
For more great photos, check out our picture collections!

californiastatelibrary:

American Indian Girl (date unknown)

For more great photos, check out our picture collections!

pixelatedtoys:

cvilbrandt:

samanthajmathis:

getbehind-me-satan:

awkwardpandalalala:

criticallyill:

lazysmirk:

HOW TO BUY LOW-COST GLASSES
If you are like me, you are low income. It doesn’t matter why, but you are and sometimes you need things to prevent your quality of life from dipping too much. Like a decent pair of eyeglasses.
Zenni Optical was brought to my attention by one of the residents at the clinic I interned at. The staff is remarkably skilled and it was my privilege to be able to work with them for 300 hours. Anyway, they serve many low-income folks and, instead of them sending them to their optician to look at frames, they recommended taking the up to date prescription and plugging it in at Zenni to get a good pair.
What you need
Your eyeglasses prescription. Get it however:

Dig it up from your paperwork
Call the last place that did your exam and pick it up
Pay for a new eye exam, decline fitting, and take the paper

Your pupillary distance

This is likely on your script somewhere. Look for “PD” and the number behind it. Otherwise, try this.

Here’s what you do:

Make an account at Zenni.
Plug in your prescription. I won’t go into the details of why and how scripts are written the way they are and how cool it is. Just plug in the values exactly as you see them. OD (ocular dexter) is the right eye and OS (ocular sinister) is the left. Sphere, cylinder, and axis for each. 

It should look like this: 


Now shop for some glasses and order. 

Cheapest pair is about $7. Shipping is a flat $4.95 no matter how many pairs you order. Sales are often so, sometimes, shipping is free.
You can also order prescription sunglasses! Just make to order a regular pair in whatever frame, import the prescription you plugged in, and choose Add Standard Lens Tint. 
I recently order my sunglasses because my eyes are going to boil out of their sockets. Took about a week. Came with a lens wipe cloth, PD ruler, and a case. Lenses are accurate and the frame doesn’t feel cheap or unbalanced. 
SUPER.


saving this for later

Lots of people I know order from zenni and they get wickedly cute glasses for cheap. It’s awesome.

LIFE SAVER

I’ve used this service twice and I can tell you they make very good glasses for extremely cheap. My glasses cost 300 something at the optometrist and I paid like, 25 bucks for a pair of prescription sunglasses on Zenni. And they’re awesome. It can take 2-3 weeks for them to be processed, made and shipped to you, so be prepared for that, but great quality once they get to you.

Duly noted!

I have 3 pairs of glasses from zenni, and they are as good as advertised. You honestly can’t tell the difference my $7 pair and my $125 pair of glasses.

pixelatedtoys:

cvilbrandt:

samanthajmathis:

getbehind-me-satan:

awkwardpandalalala:

criticallyill:

lazysmirk:

HOW TO BUY LOW-COST GLASSES

If you are like me, you are low income. It doesn’t matter why, but you are and sometimes you need things to prevent your quality of life from dipping too much. Like a decent pair of eyeglasses.

Zenni Optical was brought to my attention by one of the residents at the clinic I interned at. The staff is remarkably skilled and it was my privilege to be able to work with them for 300 hours. Anyway, they serve many low-income folks and, instead of them sending them to their optician to look at frames, they recommended taking the up to date prescription and plugging it in at Zenni to get a good pair.

What you need

  • Your eyeglasses prescription. Get it however:

Dig it up from your paperwork

Call the last place that did your exam and pick it up

Pay for a new eye exam, decline fitting, and take the paper

  • Your pupillary distance

This is likely on your script somewhere. Look for “PD” and the number behind it. Otherwise, try this.

Here’s what you do:

Make an account at Zenni.

Plug in your prescription. I won’t go into the details of why and how scripts are written the way they are and how cool it is. Just plug in the values exactly as you see them. OD (ocular dexter) is the right eye and OS (ocular sinister) is the left. Sphere, cylinder, and axis for each. 

It should look like this: 

Now shop for some glasses and order. 

Cheapest pair is about $7. Shipping is a flat $4.95 no matter how many pairs you order. Sales are often so, sometimes, shipping is free.

You can also order prescription sunglasses! Just make to order a regular pair in whatever frame, import the prescription you plugged in, and choose Add Standard Lens Tint. 

I recently order my sunglasses because my eyes are going to boil out of their sockets. Took about a week. Came with a lens wipe cloth, PD ruler, and a case. Lenses are accurate and the frame doesn’t feel cheap or unbalanced. 

SUPER.

saving this for later

Lots of people I know order from zenni and they get wickedly cute glasses for cheap. It’s awesome.

LIFE SAVER

I’ve used this service twice and I can tell you they make very good glasses for extremely cheap. My glasses cost 300 something at the optometrist and I paid like, 25 bucks for a pair of prescription sunglasses on Zenni. And they’re awesome. It can take 2-3 weeks for them to be processed, made and shipped to you, so be prepared for that, but great quality once they get to you.

Duly noted!

I have 3 pairs of glasses from zenni, and they are as good as advertised. You honestly can’t tell the difference my $7 pair and my $125 pair of glasses.

Source: lazysmirk

pigeonsoup:

I’m super excited that we’re finally launching this. I’ve had so much fun working on it with cedreau. 

pigeonsoup:

I’m super excited that we’re finally launching this. I’ve had so much fun working on it with cedreau

Source: fullcirclecomic

sawdustbear:

A.I.M agents are expected to maintain a professional distance between the Avengers and themselves, unless actively attempting to destroy them.

More A.I.M comics:

Part 1 (Casual Fridays)

Part 2 (Lunch Break)

Part 3 (Trust Falls)

Part 4 (Employee of the Month)

Part 5 (Birthday Committee)

 

Kida Appreciation Week: A Favorite Scene

Source: disneyyandmore

elfgoodness:

ollietherottweiler:

africandogontheprairie:

Your choice affects your dog’s choice — a lesson I’m reminded of everyday. (Image credit goes to Lili Chin.)
Way back this winter, when Chalo started having growly reactions toward other dogs, I made the mistake of correcting him for it. Traditional wisdom and all the training books I’d read as a kid in the ’90s told me firm discipline was necessary, so I spoke sternly and used physical corrections with a choke collar. Surprise: in just 48 hours, it became so much worse. A little growliness turned into full-on explosions of snarling and lunging and raised hackles and high emotions. The changes were happening so quickly it frightened me. This was not a dog I recognized. So I backtracked, devoured every bit of reactivity literature I could find on the internet, and soon wondered if, in Chalo’s mind, the situation looked very different. To him, it seemed to be, “Every time we see a dog, my person gets worried and bad things happen. She becomes a person I do not recognize. I need to growl more to make that dog go away, and to keep bad things from happening.” My whole perspective on the issue changed — or at least, made me more receptive to alternatives, out of desperation and concern that I was singlehandedly ruining my dog.
The next day I approached it differently, with a soft, open, patient mindset and a bag full of cheese. And in one session, Chalo was sitting quietly and sweetly, twenty feet away from the golden retriever who previously sent him into a growling frenzy.
In one week, he was walking past yards of snarling, lunging, barking, frustrated dogs with the same sweet, quiet, expectant look on his face.
Today, Chalo hasn’t growled at another dog in months.
I definitely don’t propose that there is any one-size-fits-all training method for every dog, and everything I don’t know about dogs could fill several rooms several times over. But Chalo teaches me so much, all the time: how to be a better teacher, how to approach problems creatively, how to be patient, how to motivate. So many canine behavior problems are misunderstandings, rooted partly in a failure of human imagination and empathy. And that is fixable. That can change. Chalo continues to show me what I need to give more of, not just in dog training but in life in general — reflection on my own actions, and consideration for how we all can be shaped, battered, or buoyed by the world around us. Dogs can make us better, and this dog is making me better. 

important

Good thing I learned this now

elfgoodness:

ollietherottweiler:

africandogontheprairie:

Your choice affects your dog’s choice — a lesson I’m reminded of everyday. (Image credit goes to Lili Chin.)

Way back this winter, when Chalo started having growly reactions toward other dogs, I made the mistake of correcting him for it. Traditional wisdom and all the training books I’d read as a kid in the ’90s told me firm discipline was necessary, so I spoke sternly and used physical corrections with a choke collar. Surprise: in just 48 hours, it became so much worse. A little growliness turned into full-on explosions of snarling and lunging and raised hackles and high emotions. The changes were happening so quickly it frightened me. This was not a dog I recognized. So I backtracked, devoured every bit of reactivity literature I could find on the internet, and soon wondered if, in Chalo’s mind, the situation looked very different. To him, it seemed to be, “Every time we see a dog, my person gets worried and bad things happen. She becomes a person I do not recognize. I need to growl more to make that dog go away, and to keep bad things from happening.” My whole perspective on the issue changed — or at least, made me more receptive to alternatives, out of desperation and concern that I was singlehandedly ruining my dog.

The next day I approached it differently, with a soft, open, patient mindset and a bag full of cheese. And in one session, Chalo was sitting quietly and sweetly, twenty feet away from the golden retriever who previously sent him into a growling frenzy.

In one week, he was walking past yards of snarling, lunging, barking, frustrated dogs with the same sweet, quiet, expectant look on his face.

Today, Chalo hasn’t growled at another dog in months.

I definitely don’t propose that there is any one-size-fits-all training method for every dog, and everything I don’t know about dogs could fill several rooms several times over. But Chalo teaches me so much, all the time: how to be a better teacher, how to approach problems creatively, how to be patient, how to motivate. So many canine behavior problems are misunderstandings, rooted partly in a failure of human imagination and empathy. And that is fixable. That can change. Chalo continues to show me what I need to give more of, not just in dog training but in life in general — reflection on my own actions, and consideration for how we all can be shaped, battered, or buoyed by the world around us. Dogs can make us better, and this dog is making me better. 

important

Good thing I learned this now

Source: africandogontheprairie